1.What is biodiversity?
Biodiversity refers to the variety and variability of all types of microbes,plants and animals on the earth.It includes genetic diversity,species diversity and ecosystem diversity.
2.What are the causes of loss of biodiversity?
(i)Wild life killing.
(ii)Introduction of new species from outside.
(iv)Different types of pollution.
(v)Deforestation of plant species excessively.
3.What is meant by biodiversity hotspots?
World conservation Monitoring centre and other institutions recognize some threatened regions rich in biodiversity and endemism.Such threatened regions are called biodiversity hotspots.
4.Name biodiversity hotspots of india.
Two important hotspots of india are –
(i)Indo Burma-Arunachal Pradesh and adjacent region of Myanmar.
(ii)Western Ghat-Western ghat and Nilgiri hillregion.
5.what are the criteria for determining a hotspot?
High biodiversity and endemic species richness are the primary criteria.Other features are the areas should be already threatened or under threat,the site should include a diverse range of the habitat etc.
6.Define endemic animal with example.
The animals those are distributed in a few special area of zoogeographical realm but are not available in other parts,are known as endemic animals.
Example: Sphenodon punctatum,a reptile found only in New Zealand under Australia realm.
7.what are meant by In-situ conservation and Ex-situ conservation?
In-situ conservation :The process in which protection and management of our natural resources to ensure continuous yield of normal vegitation and animals to protect from exploitation, destribution, misuse etc,are together is known as in-situ conservation.
Example:Biosphere reserves,Sanctuaries etc.
Ex-situ conservation:When conservation is done outside the natural habitat of organisams,it is called ex-situ conservation.
Example:Zoological parks,Botanical gardens,Germ plasm bank etc,are the examples of ex-situ conservation.
8.How many Biosphere reserves are there in India? Give two names of them.
At present there are 15 major biosphere in India.
Two biosphere reserve in India-Nilgiri,Nanda devi.
9.State two advantages of in-situ conservation.
(i) The favourable habitatsof the conserved organisam are not to be made artificially as they are conserved in natural habitats.So the in -situ conservation is less expensive.
(ii) Conserved plants and animals are easily adapted with their habitats in in-situ conservation.