Oxyhemoglobin ,Carboxyhemoglobin, Carbohemoglobin & Sulpphemoglobin.
2.What are the derivatives of Hemoglobin?
Iron-containing :Hematin, Hemin, Hemochromogen, Heme,Cathemoglobion, Hemosiderin.
Iron-free: Hematoporphyrin , Prophyrin, Hemopyrrole, Hematoidin, Bilurubin, Biliverdin, Stercobillin & Urobilin.
3.What is anticoagulant? Give examples?
Anticoagulant : The substance which prevents blood coagulation is known as anticoagulant. e.g.
(i)Heparin: Produced by mast cells and basophils.
(ii) Hirudin: Present in cervical gland of leech.
(v)Oxalates of Na, K.
(vi) Sodium citrate.
(vii) Sodium Fluoride.
(viii) Ethylene diamine tetra acetate.
4.What are commonly used anticoaagulants ?
Heparin, Oxalates of Li, Na,K, NH4+, Sodium citrate, Sodium fluoride, EDTA.
5.Why blood does not clot while flowing through the vessels?
(a) Thromboplastin is not released unless blood is exposed to damaged epithelium or collagen contact.
(b) The blood clotting factors present in the blood remain inactive while blood is flowing through the blood vessels. As a result, not only thromboplastin but also thrombin and fibrin, which are related with blood coagulation are not formed.
(c) Heparin, present in different tissues or cells.e.g. liver, mast cells,besophil cells etc. prevents blood coagulation while blood is flowing through blood vessels.
6. Mention the names of blood clotting factors ?
III: Tissue thromboplastin of Extrinsic Thromboplastin .
IV: Calcium, Ca++.
V: Labile factor or Accelerator globulin.
VI: Stable factor or pro-convertin.
VII: Antihemophilic factor A, AHG or Platelet co-factor I, thromboplastinogen.
VIII: Christmas factor, Antihemophilic factor B.
IX: Stuart factor or Prower factor.
X: PTA or Antihemophilic factor C.
XI: Hagemanfactor or surface factor of contact factor.
XII: Laki-Lorand Factor, LLF or fibrinase.
7. What is the role of sodium citrate as anticoagulant in blood bank ?
Sodium citrate is added while collecting blood by the blood banks. Usually in 5 ml of blood, 30 mg sodium citrate is added.
8.What is RH factor ?
Each of the six common types of Rh-antigens on RBC surface is called Rh-factor. Different types of Rh-antigens are C,D,E,c,d,e.
(i) Rh is one of the agglutinogen in the RBC of Rhesus monkey.
(ii)Rh+ve people have type -D antigens.Rh-ve people do not have type -D antigens.
(iii) The Rh factor containing only Mendelian dominant traits are called Rh+ve. C and E cannot occur without D.Hence, RH+ve group always contain D. D andDd are found in Rh+ve subtype.
9.What is the significansce of blood group ?
Determination of ABO and Rh blood group of both donor and recipient are necessary before transfusion of blood.Blood transfusion mismatch may result in various type of hazards of the recipient.
As for example-(a) Deposition of blood cells and hemolysis, (b) Jaundice,( c)General function of kidney are affected.(d) Dath may ensue.
10.Why is citrate preferred as anticoagulant to oxalate ?
Both citrate and oxalate act as anticoagulant because they cause precipitation of calcium present in the blood which is essential for blood coagulation. However, calcium citrate can be used by the body as a physiological metabolite but calcium oxalate is not. So citrate is more preferred as an anticoagulant.