What are the different types of fructification in Ascomycetes?
Ans: Generally there are three types of fructifications in Ascomycetes:
- Cleistothecium:- The ascocarp is small, hollow more or less globose and indehiscent without any opening. This is covered by sterile hyphae known as peridium. The asci are arranged in it and bear ascospores which dehisces by irregular splitting of the asci wall e.g. Penicillium, Saccharomyces etc.
- Apothecium:- The ascocarp is cup like with wide opening. It has three parts (a) Hymenium- the cup like surface bears ascus and paraphyses (b) Hypothecium- below the hymenium layer with interwoven cells and (c) Excipulum- the fleshy recipticular part from which hyphal cells attaches it to the substratum. e.g. Ascobolus.
- Perithecium:- The ascocarp is flask shaped with small pore (ostiole) surrounded inside by periphyses. The basal portion shows the arrangement of ascus and paraphyses e.g. Claviceps.